Notes on Java Architecture

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Java Architecture arises from 4 distinct technologies:
  • Java Programming Language
  • Java class file format
  • Java Application Programming Interface
  • Java Virtual Machine

You express the program in source files written in the Java programming language, compile the source to Java class files, and run the class files on a Java Virtual Machine. When you write your program, you access system resources (such as I/O, for example) by calling methods in the classes that implement the Java Application Programming Interface, or Java API.  

Together, the Java Virtual Machine and Java API form a "platform" for which all Java programs are compiled. In addition to being called the Java runtime system, the combination of the Java Virtual Machine and Java API is called the Java Platform.

The Java Virtual Machine is an abstract computer. Its specification defines certain features every Java Virtual Machine must have, but leaves many choices to the designers of each implementation. For example, although all Java Virtual Machines must be able to execute Java bytecodes, they may use any technique to execute them.

A Java Virtual Machine's main job is to load class files and execute the bytecodes they contain.


The Java Virtual Machine contains a class loader, which loads class files from both the program and the Java API. Only those class files from the Java API that are actually needed by a running program are loaded into the virtual machine. The bytecodes are executed in an execution engine, which is one part of the virtual machine that can vary in different implementations.


When running on a Java Virtual Machine that is implemented in software on top of a host operating system, a Java program interacts with the host by invoking native methods. In Java, there are two kinds of methods: Java and native. A Java method is written in the Java language, compiled to bytecodes, and stored in class files. A native method is written in some other language, such as C, C++, or assembly, and compiled to the native machine code of a particular processor. Native methods are stored in a dynamically linked library whose exact form is platform specific. While Java methods are platform independent, native methods are not. When a running Java program calls a native method, the virtual machine loads the dynamic library that contains the native method and invokes it.


Java gives you a choice. If you want to access resources of a particular host that are unavailable through the Java API, you can write a platform-specific Java program that calls native methods. If you want to keep your program platform independent, however, you must call only Java methods and access the system resources of the underlying operating system through the Java API.

The Class Loader Architecture

A Java application can use two types of class loaders: a "primordial" class loader and class loader objects. The primordial class loader is a part of the Java Virtual Machine implementation. For example, if a Java Virtual Machine is implemented as a C program on top of an existing operating system, then the primordial class loader will be part of that C program. The primordial class loader loads trusted classes, including the classes of the Java API, usually from the local disk.

At run-time, a Java application can install class loader objects that load classes in custom ways.

While the primordial class loader is an intrinsic part of the virtual machine implementation, class loader objects are not. Instead, class loader objects are written in Java, compiled to class files, loaded into the virtual machine, and instantiated just like any other object.

Java Class File

The Java class file, is a binary file that can be run on any hardware platform and operating system that hosts the Java Virtual Machine.

When you compile and link a C++ program, the executable binary file you get is specific to a particular target hardware platform and operating system because it contains machine language specific to the target processor. A Java compiler, by contrast, translates the instructions of the Java source files into bytecodes, the "machine language" of the Java Virtual Machine.

The Java API

The Java API is set of runtime libraries that give you a standard way to access the system resources of a host computer.

When you write a Java program, you assume the class files of the Java API will be available at any Java Virtual Machine that may ever have the privilege of running your program.

When you run a Java program, the virtual machine loads the Java API class files that are referred to by your programís class files.

The combination of all loaded class files (from your program and from the Java API) and any loaded dynamic libraries (containing native methods) constitute the full program executed by the Java Virtual Machine.

The class files of the Java API invoke native methods so your Java program doesnít have to. In this manner, the Java APIís class files provide a Java program with a standard, platform-independent interface to the underlying host.